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1 Huang, Lin EricHIF-1? mediates tumor hypoxia to confer a perpetual mesenchymal phenotype for malignant progressionAlthough tumor progression involves genetic and epigenetic alterations to normal cellular biology, the underlying mechanisms of these changes remain obscure. Numerous studies have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) is overexpressed in many human cancers and up-regulates a host of hypoxi...
2 Couldwell, William T.Pituitary gland metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the prostateA case of prostatic carcinoma metastasis to the pituitary gland is reported. The presentation and rarity of such a lesion is addressed. The literature review yielded only isolated case reports of symptomatic brain metastases unassociated with bone disease from adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The man...Prostate; Pituitary gland; Adenocarcinoma; Metastasis; Transsphenoidal surgery1989
3 Couldwell, William T.Management of cysticercosis cerebriInfestation of the central nervous system (CNS) with the parasitic larval form of the cestode Taenia solium, Cysticercosis Cerebri represents an endemic problem in much of the underdeveloped world. In such areas, up to 4% of the population maybe affected by neurocysticercosis, and it accounts for u...Taenia solium; Cysticercosis Cerebri; Parenchymal cyst; Basilar cisternal cyst; Intraventricular cyst1989
4 Kestle, John R. W.Intervertebral disc embolization resulting in spinal cord infarctionA case of spinal cord infarction resulting from embolization of fibrocartilaginous intervertebral disc material is presented. Cases from the literature are reviewed and the theories of pathogenesis are discussed. In all reported cases the diagnosis was not made until postmortem examination.Spinal cord infarction; Nucleus pulposus; Intervertebral disc; Embolization1989
5 Couldwell, William T.Immunology and immunotherapy of intrinsic glial tumorsImmunological aspects of glial neoplasms have been actively investigated for the past several years with particular focus on academic, diagnostic, and therapeutic objectives. As more knowledge is acquired about the cellular events relating to tumor behavior the more it appears that the immune system...Immunology; Glial tumors1990
6 Kestle, John R. W.Propionibacterium encephalitis [Letter to the editor]To THE EDITOR: We read with interest the article by Camarata, et al., reporting two cases of dorsal midbrain encephalitis (Camarata PJ, McGeachie RE, Haines S J: Dorsal midbrain encephalitis caused by Propionibacterium aches. Report of two cases. J Neurosurg 72." 654-659, April, 1990). There are...1990
7 Couldwell, William T.Initial experience related to the use of the Cosman-Roberts-Wells stereotactic instrumentInitial experience with a new arc-radius design of stereotactic frame that interfaced with the existing components of the Brown-Roberts-Wells instrument is reported. Over a 6-month period, 32 procedures were performed on 23 males and nine female patients (mean age 32 years); these included 27 ster...Image-directed stereotaxis; Stereotactic instrument; Cosman-Roberts-Wells stereotaxy1990
8 Couldwell, William T.Utilization of unilateral and bilateral stereotactically placed adrenomedullary-striatal autografts in Parkinsonian humans: rationale, techniques, and observationsA limited clinical pilot study involving an amalgam of specialized disciplines including neurology, neuropharmacology, neuropsychology, neurosurgery, neuroanesthesia, neuroradiology, surgical pathology, neuropathology, and urological surgery was organized to clarify issues related to patient selecti...Adrenal medullary graft; Autograft; Brain graft; Neural transplantation; Parkinsonism; Stereotaxy1990
9 Couldwell, William T.Inhibition of growth of established human glioma cell lines by modulators of the protein kinase-C systemThe protein kinase-C (PKC) second messenger system contributes to regulation of cell growth and differentiation. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of modulators of the PKC enzyme system on the state of differentiation and proliferation rates of human gliomas in vitro. The administrat...Protein kinase C; Phorbol ester; Cell proliferation; Tumor cell growth; Astrocyte; Glioma; Immunohistochemistry1990
10 Jaeckle, Kurt A.; Digre, Kathleen B.; Jones, Christopher R.; Bailey, Peter L.Central neurogenic hyperventilation: pharmacologic intervention with morphine sulfate and correlative analysis of respiratory, sleep, and ocular motor dysfunction.Central neurogenic hyperventilation (CNH), for which there is no effective therapy, can eventually result in respiratory fatigue and death. This report describes a patient with CNH due to a brainstem anaplastic astrocytoma who also exhibited disturbances of sleep and ocular motor function. The CNH r...Central Neurogenic H yperventilation; Ocular Motor Dysfunction1990-11
11 Couldwell, William T.Definition of the role of contemporary surgical management in cisternal and parenchymatous cysticercosis cerebriWith increasing immigration from endemic regions, the incidence of neurocysticercosis in North America is rising. This retrospective study was undertaken to examine the role of surgery in those cases presenting with large cystic parenchymal and cisternal lesions in the current era of anthelminthic a...Brain cyst; Computed tomography; Neurocysticercosis; Magnetic resonance imaging; Praziquantel; Stereotaxis1991
12 Couldwell, William T.Enhanced protein kinase C activity correlates with the growth rate of malignant gliomas in vitroDirect measurement of protein kinase C (PKC) activity in vitro revealed a significant increase in the activity of the enzyme in all human malignant glioma lines examined and the rat C6 tumor in comparison with control nonneoplastic astrocyte and mixed glial cultures. The total and particulate PKC ac...Brain neoplasms; Flow cytometry; Glioma; Phorbol ester; Protein kinase C1991
13 Couldwell, William T.Strategies for the management of nonsecreting pituitary adenomasThe two objectives of treating pituitary tumors are: (1) relief of signs and symptoms attributable to mass effect, and (2) correction of hypo - or hypersecretion of adenohypophyseal hormones.7 When nonsecreting tumors are specifically considered, correction of endocrine abnormalities may be of les...Pituitary adenomas; Transsphenoidal surgery1991
14 Couldwell, William T.Protein kinase C activity correlates with the growth rate of malignant gliomas: Part II. Effects of glioma mitogens and modulators of protein kinase CTHE PROLIFERATION RATES of gliomas may be modulated by the protein kinase C (PKC) signal transduction system. The present study was undertaken to further examine the role of PKC system in growth regulation of gliomas in vitro by measurement of PKC activity over various phases of tumor growth and by ...Protein kinase C; Brain neoplasms; Growth factor; Glioma; Phorbol ester1992
15 Couldwell, William T.Malignant glioma-derived soluble factors regulate proliferation of normal adult human astrocytesMalignant gliomas are characteristically surrounded by marked gliosis. To assess whether glioma-derived products contribute to the proliferation of astrocytes, a feature of the gliosis response, we evaluated the influence of culture supernatants from malignant human glioma lines and tumor cyst fluid...Astrocyte; Glioma; Gliosis; Proliferation; Soluble factors1992
16 Kestle, John R. W.Comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography for stereotactic coordinate determinationThe spatial accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been established for stereotactic surgery. Magnetic susceptibility artifacts may lead to anatomical distortion and inaccurate stereotactic MRI coordinates, especially when targets are in regions of the brain out of the center of the ma...Computed tomography; Stereotactic coordinates; Stereotactic surgery1992
17 Digre, Kathleen B.; Mamalis, Nick; White, George L. Jr.Congenital anomalies of the optic nerve in one family.We present three cases of congenital optic disc anomalies in one family who underwent an extensive diagnostic workup to exclude any intracranial pathology. One patient had elevated optic nerve heads and was hospitalized for multiple diagnostic tests including a lumbar puncture and magnetic resonance...Optic Nerve; Congenital Anomalies1992-04-24
18 Digre, Kathleen B.; Skuster, Denise Z.Neurologic conditions presenting as psychiatric disorders.Understanding underlying neuroanatomic function helps physicians to localize defects and search for treatable neurologic conditions. Neurologic conditions such as Huntington's chorea, Wilson's disease, Gille de la Tourette syndrome, brain tumors, encephalitis and meningitis, neurodegenerative condit...Psychiatric Diagnosis; Neurologic Disease1992-06-15
19 Couldwell, William T.Clinical and radiographic response in a minority of patients with recurrent malignant gliomas treated with high-dose tamoxifenPREVIOUS WORK HAS demonstrated the importance of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) signal transduction system in regulating the growth rate of malignant gliomas in vitro. Tamoxifen inhibits PKC in a minority of malignant gliomas within the micromolar concentration range in vitro, a property distinct from...Tamoxifen; Protein kinase C; Glioma; Brain neoplasm; Chemotherapy; Glioma1993
20 Couldwell, William T.Development of neurosurgery in Southern California and the Los Angeles County/University of Southern California Medical CenterThe Los Angeles County General Hospital has played an integral role in the development of medicine and neurosurgery in Southern California. From its fledgling beginnings, the University of Southern California School of Medicine has been closely affiliated with the hospital, providing the predomina...Historical vignette; Los Angeles County General Hospital; University of Southern California School of Medicine; Neurosurgical history1993
21 Couldwell, William T.Life-threatening reactions to propofolTo the Editor: Propofol (2,6-diisopropyl phenol; Diprivan; Stuart Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE) has been advocated as a titratable continuous infusion anesthetic agent associated with fast and smooth recovery (2, 7). The anesthetic properties of a smooth induction, short half-life, and rapid eme...Propofol; Diprivan1993
22 Couldwell, William T.Protein kinase C inhibitors suppress cell growth in established and low-passage glioma cell lines. a comparison between staurosporine and tamoxifenWE HAVE PREVIOUSLY demonstrated that the proliferation of established human glioma cell lines correlated with protein kinase C (PKC) activity and that a relatively selective PKC inhibitor, staurosporine, inhibits glioma cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-passa...Staurosporin; Tamoxifen; Protein kinase C; Glioma; Brain neoplasm; Glioma cell lines1993
23 Couldwell, William T.Penetrating craniocerebral injury resultant from gunshot wounds: gang-related injury in children and adolescentsWE PROSPECTIVELY AND retrospectively reviewed a series of 780 patients who presented to the University of Southern California/Los Angeles County Medical Center with a diagnosis of gunshot wound to the brain during an 8-year period. Of these, 105 were children ranging in age from 6 months to 17 yea...Craniocerebral injury; Los Angeles County General Hospital; University of Southern California School of Medicine1993
24 Kestle, John R. W.Moyamoya phenomenon after radiation for optic gliomaThe role of radiotherapy in the management of patients with optic pathway glioma is controversial. In a series of patients with optic pathway glioma treated at The Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, five children were encountered who developed moyamoya phenomenon after radiotherapy. A retrospec...Optic pathway glioma1993
25 Kestle, John R. W.Role of angiography following aneurysm surgeryThe postoperative angiograms in 66 patients who underwent craniotomy for clipping of 78 cerebral aneurysms were reviewed. Indications for urgent postoperative angiography included neurological deficit or repeat subarachnoid hemorrhage. Routine postoperative angiograms were carried out in the remai...Postoperative angiography; Aneurysm rest; Cerebral angiography; Vascular occlusion1993
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