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TitleDescriptionType
1 2-37b - Vascular FeaturesWhen looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller because of diminution of the muscular layer and loss of ...Image
2 2-37a - Vascular FeaturesWhen looking at the disc, the central retinal artery and vein should be visible. The central retinal artery is usually slightly narrower than the vein. When the central retinal artery goes though the lamina cribrosa, the artery becomes smaller because of diminution of the muscular layer and loss of ...Image
3 Retino-choroidal Vessels or Optociliary veins or ciliary shuntOverview of retino-choroidal collaterals, which are potential telangiectatic connections between the retina and choroidal circulation. Although sometimes called "shunts", these collaterals are between the retinal venous circulation and the choroidal venous circulation.Text
4 Location of pupillomotor fibersLocation of pupillomotor fibers are depicted as dark regions on cross-sections of the right (R) and left (L) oculomotor nerve at various locations along its course, including its emergence from the brain stem in the interpeduncular fossa (1), the midsubarachnoid segment (2), the level of the dorsum ...Image/StillImage
5 Anatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathwayAnatomy of the pupillary light reflex pathway. (Miller NR: Walsh And Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, p 421. Vol 2, 4th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1985, with permission.)Image/StillImage
6 OpsoclonusExample of patients with opsoclonus, a saccadic abnormality. Discussion of characteristics of opsoclonus, such as involuntary, rapid, brief, random, conjugate saccades. Discussion of possible causes, including brain stem encephalitis (as in first patient), a paraneoplastic effect, tumors, and drug t...Image/MovingImage
7 Spasm of the Near ReflexExample of patient with spasm of the near reflex and voluntary nystagmus. Discussion of similar-looking conditions (e.g. six nerve palsy, limitation of abduction, lateral rectus muscle problems) and how to tell them apart from spasm of the near reflex by observing the myosis evoked by the near respo...Image/MovingImage
8 Duane's Retraction Syndrome Type 3Example of a patient with Type 3 Duane's Retraction Syndrome, as well as bilateral Duane's Syndrome. Shows limitation of abduction in both eyes and adduction in the left eye. Also shows side-view of globe retraction in abduction.Image/MovingImage
9 Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (2 examples)Two examples of patients with internuclear ophthalmoplegia. First patient has a right internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Patient had subacute bacterial endocarditis with a bacterial abscess in the brain stem. Ductions and gaze to the right look good, but when gazing to the left, the right eye does not ad...Image/MovingImage
10 Progressive Supranuclear PalsyExample of patient with progressive supranuclear palsy. Discussion of difference between saccadic movement in supranuclear palsy and nystagmus. Shows saccadic intrusions in forward gaze, pursuit, saccades, and doll's head maneuver.Image/MovingImage
11 Ocular Lateropulsion (Wallenberg's Syndrome)Example of patient with ocular lateropulsion. Patient also has central Horner syndrome and nystagmus in right gaze. When shifting gaze back to forward, eyes overshoot their mark. Eyes laterally deviate to the right upon opening.Image/MovingImage
12 Congenital NystagmusExample of patients with congenital nystagmus. First patient's nystagmus are mostly jerk and not pendular. Second patient's nystagmus are mostly pendular. Both patients show a uniform horizontal oscillation. Second patient also shows differences in frequency of oscillations depending on gaze, includ...Image/MovingImage
13 Aberrant Regeneration of the Third and Sixth NervesImage/MovingImage
14 OpsoclonusExample of patients with opsoclonus, a saccadic abnormality.Image/MovingImage
15 Rebound NystagmusExample of a patient with rebound nystagmus, where the oscillations alternate direction as the patient shifts gaze in different directions. Discussion of relationship to disease and disorders of the cerebellum, including degenerations of the cerebellum, infarction, and demyelination.Image/MovingImage
16 Monocular Pendular NystagmusExample of a patient with monocular pendular nystagmus, with discussion of situations in which this condition is seen: acquired disorder of the visual-sensory pathway, and acquired disorder of the brain stem (e.g. multiple sclerosis).Image/MovingImage
17 2-7a - Disc AnatomyThe optic disc appearance is determined by: the size of the eye, the size of the scleral canal, how the nerve is inserted into the globe, the appearance of the lamina cribrosa, where myelination stops, and what is left behind in normal development. Even though this is a disc with a very large cup, i...Image
18 3-31b - Papilledema StagesGrading Papilledema: Stage 0 GRADING PAPILLEDEMA GRADING PAPILLEDEMA We grade papilledema in order to tell us how severe it is. The most sensible grading scheme has been provided by Lars Frisén. STAGE 0: This woman had documented increased intracranial pressure of 340 mm water. Very little if any ...Image
19 3-32b - Papilledema StagesGrading Papilledema: Stage 1 Stage 1 = C shaped blurring of the nasal, superior and inferior borders. Usually the temporal margin is normal. Also notice the chorio-retinal folds (arrows) that eminate toward the macula (m)Image
20 3-59a - GliomaThis 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm an enlarged optic nerve. (3-59c) Excisional biopsy o...Image
21 3-59c - GliomaThis 45-year-old man presented with vision loss in his right eye; his examination showed severe disc swelling in this eye and vision loss on visual field testing (3-59a). MRI with fat saturation and enhancement and MRI with T2 signals also confirm an enlarged optic nerve. (3-59c) Excisional biopsy o...Image
22 3-3 - Bergmeister PapillaImage
23 Duane's Syndrome Type 2: Aberrant Regeneration of the Third and Sixth NervesExample of a patient with Type 2 Duane's Syndrome. Demonstrates limitation of adduction in left eye with normal abduction. Discussion of limited pathological cases.Image/MovingImage
24 How to Measure the RAPDThis clip demonstrates the examination technique for measuring the Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect (RAPD). Demonstration of balancing an afferent papillary defect using filters in a patient with a resolving optic neuritis and an afferent papillary defect on the left.Image/MovingImage
25 Aberrant Regeneration of Third Nerve, Bilaterally (1 degree OD, 2 Digrees OS)Example of patient with bilateral aberrancy of the third nerve. Shows lids popping up (synkinetic) with adduction. Patient had bilateral internal carotid artery aneurisms with third nerve compression.Image/MovingImage
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