||In conjunction with the Utah Educational Policy Research center and under the supervision of Dr. Andrea Rorrer, this paper examines the current research surrounding differentiation in public elementary school (K-5) classrooms in the United States. This paper will seek to find a clear, singular definition of differentiation, including means by which teachers may differentiate. This will encompass differentiation of content (what students are learning), process (how students are being taught) and product (how students demonstrate what they have learned). It will also explore the benefits, challenges, and weaknesses for students, teachers and administrators. Areas for potential future research and gaps in current research will also be explored. In order to help educators and administrators determine if instruction is well-differentiated, an evaluation matrix has been created.