||Anthropogenic climate change presents a pressing need for a deepened understanding of the factors contributing to vulnerability to natural hazards. This study contributes to understanding of the social dimensions of rapid-onset natural hazards by addressing the following research questions: How have historical developmental processes shaped hazards vulnerability? What are mechanisms underlying household vulnerability to rapid-onset hazards? How do large-scale, rapid-onset natural disasters influence long-term development outcomes for subjected communities? This study's first empirical analysis focuses on livelihoods as mechanisms of household resilience from Hurricane Mitch, utilizing the Nicaraguan Living Standards and Measurement Survey (LSMS). Findings indicate specific livelihood profiles to variably predict long-term recovery of disaster impacted households, with households reliant upon agricultural wage production exhibiting a lowered improvement in condition in comparison with households reliant on other livelihoods. This study's second empirical analysis, examining the hurricane's influence on international migration, finds international migration following Hurricane Mitch to be associated with heightened positive selectivity according to capital access. Although these specific livelihood related resilience mechanisms indicate resilience to be associated with high levels of capital ownership, analysis of recovery outcomes at the municipality level indicates a reduction in poverty in impacted communities and increases in consumption shares of those in lower consuming segments. The findings of this study's separate analysis, which appear at odds, are reconciled in discussion of other likely influencing factors.