||The internet-based information infrastructure that has powered the growth of modern personal/mobile computing is composed of powerful, warehouse-scale computers or datacenters. These heavily subscribed datacenters perform data-processing jobs under intense quality of service guarantees. Further, high-performance compute platforms are being used to model and analyze increasingly complex scientific problems and natural phenomena. To ensure that the high-performance needs of these machines are met, it is necessary to increase the efficiency of the memory system that supplies data to the processing cores. Many of the microarchitectural innovations that were designed to scale the memory wall (e.g., out-of-order instruction execution, on-chip caches) are being rendered less effective due to several emerging trends (e.g., increased emphasis on energy consumption, limited access locality). This motivates the optimization of the main memory system itself. The key to an efficient main memory system is the memory controller. In particular, the scheduling algorithm in the memory controller greatly influences its performance. This dissertation explores this hypothesis in several contexts. It develops tools to better understand memory scheduling and develops scheduling innovations for CPUs and GPUs. We propose novel memory scheduling techniques that are strongly aware of the access patterns of the clients as well as the microarchitecture of the memory device. Based on these, we present (i) a Dynamic Random Access Memory (DRAM) chip microarchitecture optimized for reducing write-induced slowdown, (ii) a memory scheduling algorithm that exploits these features, (iii) several memory scheduling algorithms to reduce the memory-related stall experienced by irregular General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) applications, and (iv) the Utah Simulated Memory Module (USIMM), a detailed, validated simulator for DRAM main memory that we use for analyzing and proposing scheduler algorithms.