||Polydore Vergil or Virgil (Italian: Polidoro Virgili; commonly Latinised as Polydorus Vergilius; c. 1470 - 18 April 1555), widely known as "Polydore Vergil of Urbino", was an Italian humanist scholar, historian, priest and diplomat, who spent most of his life in England. Among his works is De inventoribus rerum (1499), a history of discoveries and origins, describing in three books the "first begetters" of all human activities. Book I investigated the origin of the gods and the word "God", along with such matters as the creation, marriage, religion and learning. Book II covered, among other topics, the origins of law, time, military science, money, precious metals and art. Book III covered, again among other topics, the origins of agriculture, architecture, towns, theatres, tools and materials, maritime navigation, commerce and prostitution. For the edition of 1521, Vergil added five more books, devoted to the initia institorum rei Christianae, i.e. the origins of Christian rites and institutions. He probably thought that this addition would be a popular one, but it was also a concession towards critics who had labelled the De Inventoribus a work of heretics and depravity. The work nonetheless included criticisms of monks, priestly celibacy, indulgences, and of the policies and constitutional status of the papacy. As a consequence it was placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (papal list of prohibited books) in 1564: an expurgated text, sanctioned by Gregory XIII, was published in 1576. This is the version presented here.