||European integration has brought about dramatic and far-reaching social, economic, and political changes in Europe. Some of the consequences of integration have been unpredicted and unintended and have created something of a paradox. One example of such a paradox is the phenomenon of substate or minority nationalism. In the context of the European Union (EU), where the goal has been to do away with national rivalries and forge a European identity, nationalism itself presents an interesting puzzle, minority nationalism even more so. This dissertation addresses the issue of the EU as an unnatural but effective supporter of minority nationalism. The central argument is that through integration generally and more specifically through the processes of increased democratization, multilevel governance, and the establishment of new norms and institutions at the EU level minority nationalists have found an opportunity structure and support system to further their political goals. Through a historical analysis of two cases, Spain and Turkey, this study demonstrates that integration has benefited minority nationalists and their political representatives in significant ways; however, integration has had a more limited impact on Kurdish nationalism compared to Basque, Catalan, and Galician nationalism because of Turkey's EU candidate status. Furthermore, an analysis of the evolution of the EU's regional representative body, the Committee of the Regions, reveals an increasingly significant and assertive role for substate authorities within the EU polity, which is particularly promising from the minority nationalist perspective. Overall, this study argues for the historical significance of integration in relation to minority nationalism, its increased significance in the current era of crisis and change in Europe, and how independence is still a goal for some minority nationalists, but within the context of an EU structure, that allows for new concepts of the nation and the state.