Daniel R. Gold, DO, Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology, Neurosurgery, Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery, Emergency Medicine, and Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine
This is a 70-yo-woman with progressive supranuclear palsy with complaints of difficulty reading. Her husband noticed that she would frequently close one eye when attempting to read, and words were not clear on the page, and this would in fact improve by covering one eye. On her exam, she had a 1 prism diopter (PD) esodeviation with Maddox rod testing at distance (difficult to appreciate subtle refixation saccades with alternate cover testing due to her square wave jerks), and with alternate cover testing at near, there was a 10 PD exotropia. Additionally, her near point of convergence was about 20 cm (normal is <10 cm), and her convergence amplitude was 4 PD (base out prism - normal is >15 PD). Convergence insufficiency is common following concussion/TBI or with parkinsonism. Square wave jerks are common in PSP, and hers are shown here as well.
Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library, University of Utah