Raed Behbehani, MD, Al-Bahar Ophthalmology Center, Kuwait City, Kuwait
Parinaud syndrome, as called dorsal midbrain syndrome, is due to dorsal midbrain lesions from compression (e.g., a tumor), demyelination, or ischemia. The syndrome is characterized by limitation of upward gaze, convergence retraction nystagmus, light near dissociation, and lid retraction (Collier's sign). Of note, Parinaud was a French ophthalmologist who studied under Charcot in the Salpêtrière in Paris.
Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library, University of Utah