Table of Contents
Collection Overview +/-
Collection Inventory +/-
Biographical Note/Historical Note +/-
St. Mark's Hospital opened in 1872 under the direction of the Episcopal Church in a two room adobe house on 500 East and 300 South in Salt Lake City. Two years later it admitted its first patients. The 1879 expansion saw the purchase of land and the erection of a new building with room for fifteen beds to better treat the infirm miner lead poisoning, industrial injuries, and typhoid fever.
St. Marks Hospital School of Nursing: On March 24, 1893, the St. Mark's Hospital Board of Directors authorized the establishment of a training school for nurses in connection with the hospital. In 1894, a new 50-bed St. Mark's hospital opened with a nurses training program at 200 North 700 West. Twenty-three year old, Miss Mary Edith Newitt, a recent graduate of New York City's St. Luke's Training School, served as the head nurse. The first class of four nurses graduated from the two year program in 1896. While St. Mark's Nursing School began as a two-year program, a third year was added in 1898. Between 1892 and 1898, the hospital more than doubled its capacity when it added a new wing to house the surgical, medical, and women's wards.
The nursing students were initially housed in a cottage owned by the hospital on Reed Street, later they lived in the basement of the new wing, and finally they moved into a new three-story residence constructed in 1906. The Nurses Home was opened on May 8, 1907, as a memorial to Episcopal Bishop Abel Leonard. Its first floor apartments housed the head nurse, the assistant head nurse, and the night nurse plus a living room, while the second and third floors housed the nursing students.
The school's curriculum evolved as state and national standards and trends changed. Initially, the program required extensive clinical training and little classroom work. New students were assigned to the hospital a day after their arrival. Student nurses, known as probationers, spent their first year assisting in general cleaning, food preparation, and other tasks as well as nursing. Each nurse was assigned to a particular ward on regular rotations. Between 1896 and 1920, more than 200 nurses graduated from St. Mark's. Students worked twelve hours per day and attended classes in the evening. Students were provided board and lodging, reasonable laundry and a monthly allowance of $5 for the purchase of uniforms and textbooks and to meet other expenses. In 1927, requirements were tightened requiring high school diplomas for students to be admitted into the program. From 1914 to 1966, clinical work requirements fell from seventy-six hours per week to twenty-eight hours while total classroom hours increased from 208 to 1,543.
Between 1935 and 1950, the need for nurses increased dramatically as the number of patients in U.S. hospitals doubled while the number of stateside nurses declined as more nurses joined military service during World War II. The U.S. Congress responded by creating the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps as an incentive to increase the number of students in the program by providing financial aid to nursing students. Additionally, St. Mark's Nursing School created its own incentive by making it possible for students to gain university credit at the school. Students could graduate with a Bachelor of Sciences by taking courses in conjunction with the University of Utah. However, this program ended in 1948 when the University tried to gain control of St. Mark's Nursing Program. St. Mark's declined the University's offer and instead became academically affiliated with Westminster College that same year.
The diversity of the school's student body broadened with the addition of the first graduating African American student (Nancy Bankhead) in 1955, and the first graduating male student (Kenneth Ross Church) in 1963. The 1960s saw a national decline in the supply of highly skilled nurses.
On August 15, 1968, the Board of Directors of St. Mark's Hospital voted to terminate the Diploma Program of the St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing as of June 1970. In an effort to build support for the program, Westminster College and St. Mark's Nursing School commenced a baccalaureate-nursing program together, completing the transition in 1970, in time for the first Westminster students to graduate from the program in 1972.
St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing Alumni Association: In the Summer of 1895, St. Mark's Hospital completed the first year of its two-year nursing training program. The St. Mark's Nursing School Alumni Association was organized in the 1904/1905 school year as an organization to maintain contact between the school and its alumni. It was organized by Nellie Crossland, superintendent of nurses at the hospital, and began with twelve original members. In 1958, the Association was officially organized with the State of Utah.
The organization's changes reflect the changes in the St. Mark's Nursing School. In 1949, the hospital developed an official association with Westminster College, culminating with St. Mark's phasing out of their independent nursing program in favor of full integration with Westminster College in 1970. The school was renamed St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing and the Association's name was changed accordingly. In 1995, the School held a large Centennial Celebration to mark its "100 Years of Caring."
The Alumni Association's membership was for all graduates of the St. Mark's nursing program, regardless of whether they attended before or after the merger. All dues-paying members received Stethoscope (the Association's official newsletter), containing the news of the association, school, alumni, upcoming events, and newsworthy items.
In the late 1960s, the Alumni Association became interested in its own history, and that of St. Mark's Hospital, and began to collect college histories, pictures, and personal stories from its members. This effort resulted in the publication in 1970 of St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing story by Lottie Felkner. It was later updated with Felkner’s 1995 A century of caring: 1895-1995 St. Mark's-Westminster School of Nursing.
More information on the current Westminster College School of Nursing and Health Sciences is available online.
Sources of information for this biographical/historical note:
Content Description +/-
This collection consists of a single scrapbook compiled for the graduating Class of 1965 of the St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing (Salt Lake City, Utah). It contains pictures, pamphlets, and cards, all with handwritten captions and notes. The scrapbook does not appear to be an official scrapbook of the School of Nursing, nor of the St. Mark's Nursing School Alumnia Association, but probably the result of student efforts. It is unknown whether other such scrapbooks were created but no others have been found.
The scrapbook is organized by event and/or subject, with a mixture of supplemental materials throughout. For example, the first heading given in the book is "As Freshmen," referring to the student's first year providing information on the capping exercises including date, a list of names, and cards commemorating the ceremony. The capping program lists the location, date and time of the ceremony, a motivational poem "My Pledge and Creed," event details, and the listing of the School of Nursing faculty.
The scrapbook was originally illustrated with photographs, but they have become detached from the pages of the book and disorganized. The majority of the photographs were placed in the center of the book without any order or identification which would indicate where they belonged in the book originally. There is also no identifying information on any of the photographs (i.e., names and events). Understanding the context of named events or individuals is hampered by the separation of the illustrating photographs; in almost every case, the name of an event is listed including pictured individuals.
Both social and academic events are described. The nurses' Halloween Party is one such social event. Notations include a reference to the "Lawrence Welk Show," though it is not certain whether the nurses attended the actual show or if they performed a spoof-like skit. The emcee of the event is named as "Crazy G." An example of an academic event is the "Psych Rotation," which took the nurses to Provo, Utah (probably to the State Mental Hospital). For this event, photographs were meant to show "the dorm," "the castle," "the pond," "the view," and the "main building."
Included throughout the scrapbook are a myriad of cards. These cards celebrate events ranging from anniversaries to Christmas (a category in the scrapbook is listed as "Christmas 1964"). Some of the cards are not addressed to anyone, but contain signed messages. The cards are typically addressed to either nursing students or nursing faculty, depending on what the cards are meant to commemorate. Cards sent for more specific occasions, such as the Capping Ceremony, are more likely to be addressed to the class itself, rather than an individual student.
The scrapbook also mentions the marriages of students; the wedding of a nursing student Ms. Paggy Milner, is mentioned in two newspaper article clippings, as well as a note from the wedding.
The book's "Senior Class Prophecy" is a typewritten document with humorous and positive predictions of the futures of members of the entire graduating class. For example, Ben Franz's prophecy is as follows: "What will ten years show in this guy? Well, besides age, this guy will probably be up in surgery as an anesthetist passing gas – you can take that for what it's worth!"
Collection Use +/-
Restrictions on Access:
Open to public research.
Access to parts of this collection may be restricted under provisions of state or federal law.
Twenty-four hours advance notice is encouraged.
Restrictions on Use:
It is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain any necessary copyright clearances.
Permission to publish material must be obtained from the director of the Giovale Library.
St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing Class of 1965 scrapbook, 1961-1965, ACC-066B, Giovale Library Archives, Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Administrative Information +/-
The scrapbook is arranged chronologically by school year.
Processed by Joshua Ivie in August 2006. The photographs were retained as they were found; no identifying information could be located.
St. Mark's Hospital (Salt Lake City, Utah). School of Nursing
Collection materials are in English.
0.3 linear foot
Language of the Finding Aid:
Author of the Finding Aid:
Finding aid written August 2006 by Joshua Ivie; administrative note for the St.Mark's-Westminster College Alumni Associaton written March 2007 by Josh Jentzsch; finding aid revised and expanded February 2015 by Sarah Shaw.
EAD Creation Date:
2015 February 05 by Sarah Shaw
Describing Archives : A Content Standard (DACS)
Related collections and photographs in Giovale Library Archives:
St. Mark's Hospital (Salt Lake City, Utah). School of Nursing--Archives
Form or Genre Terms:
Cards (information artifacts)
Salt Lake City (Utah)--History--Sources