Table of Contents
Collection Overview +/-
Collection Inventory +/-
box 1, folder 1: 1902 June - 1907 December (Volume 1)
box 1, folder 2: 1908 January - 1912 Janary (Volume 2)
box 1, folder 3: 1912 January - 1915 April (Volume 3)
box 1, folder 4: 1915 May - 1919 March (Volume 4)
box 1, folder 5: 1918 March - 1919 November (Volume 5)
box 2, folder 1: 1919 March - 1923 March (Volume 6)
box 2, folder 2: 1923 March - 1929 April (Volume 7)
box 2, folder 3: 1929 May - 1936 September (Volume 8)
box 2, folder 4: 1936 October - 1941 December (Volume 9)
box 3, folder 1: 1939 September - 1943 April (Volume 10)
box 3, folder 2: 1942 January - 1943 April (Volume 11)
box 3, folder 3: 1943 May - 1946 July (Volume 12)
box 3, folder 4: 1943 May - 1948 February (Volume 13)
box 3, folder 5: 1946 August - 1948 February (Volume 14)
box 4, folder 1: 1948 March - 1965 September (Volume 15)
box 4, folder 2: 1964 September - 1968 June (Volume 16)
Biographical Note/Historical Note +/-
St. Mark's Hospital opened in 1872 under the direction of the Episcopal Church in a two room adobe house on 500 East and 300 South in Salt Lake City. Two years later it admitted its first patients. The 1879 expansion saw the purchase of land and the erection of a new building with room for fifteen beds to better treat the infirm miner lead poisoning, industrial injuries, and typhoid fever.
St. Marks Hospital School of Nursing: On March 24, 1893, the St. Mark's Hospital Board of Directors authorized the establishment of a training school for nurses in connection with the hospital. In 1894, a new 50-bed St. Mark's hospital opened with a nurses training program at 200 North 700 West. Twenty-three year old, Miss Mary Edith Newitt, a recent graduate of New York City's St. Luke's Training School, served as the head nurse. The first class of four nurses graduated from the two year program in 1896. While St. Mark's Nursing School began as a two-year program, a third year was added in 1898. Between 1892 and 1898, the hospital more than doubled its capacity when it added a new wing to house the surgical, medical, and women's wards.
The nursing students were initially housed in a cottage owned by the hospital on Reed Street, later they lived in the basement of the new wing, and finally they moved into a new three-story residence constructed in 1906. The Nurses Home was opened on May 8, 1907, as a memorial to Episcopal Bishop Abel Leonard. Its first floor apartments housed the head nurse, the assistant head nurse, and the night nurse plus a living room, while the second and third floors housed the nursing students.
The school's curriculum evolved as state and national standards and trends changed. Initially, the program required extensive clinical training and little classroom work. New students were assigned to the hospital a day after their arrival. Student nurses, known as probationers, spent their first year assisting in general cleaning, food preparation, and other tasks as well as nursing. Each nurse was assigned to a particular ward on regular rotations. Between 1896 and 1920, more than 200 nurses graduated from St. Mark's. Students worked twelve hours per day and attended classes in the evening. Students were provided board and lodging, reasonable laundry and a monthly allowance of $5 for the purchase of uniforms and textbooks and to meet other expenses. In 1927, requirements were tightened requiring high school diplomas for students to be admitted into the program. From 1914 to 1966, clinical work requirements fell from seventy-six hours per week to twenty-eight hours while total classroom hours increased from 208 to 1,543.
Between 1935 and 1950, the need for nurses increased dramatically as the number of patients in U.S. hospitals doubled while the number of stateside nurses declined as more nurses joined military service during World War II. The U.S. Congress responded by creating the U.S. Cadet Nurse Corps as an incentive to increase the number of students in the program by providing financial aid to nursing students. Additionally, St. Mark's Nursing School created its own incentive by making it possible for students to gain university credit at the school. Students could graduate with a Bachelor of Sciences by taking courses in conjunction with the University of Utah. However, this program ended in 1948 when the University tried to gain control of St. Mark's Nursing Program. St. Mark's declined the University's offer and instead became academically affiliated with Westminster College that same year.
The diversity of the school's student body broadened with the addition of the first graduating African American student (Nancy Bankhead) in 1955, and the first graduating male student (Kenneth Ross Church) in 1963. The 1960s saw a national decline in the supply of highly skilled nurses.
On August 15, 1968, the Board of Directors of St. Mark's Hospital voted to terminate the Diploma Program of the St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing as of June 1970. In an effort to build support for the program, Westminster College and St. Mark's Nursing School commenced a baccalaureate-nursing program together, completing the transition in 1970, in time for the first Westminster students to graduate from the program in 1972.
Dr. Galen O. Belden (secretary of the medical staff at St. Mark's Hospital) established a memorial scholarship in 1991 shortly after his wife's death. The Irene Bunch Belden Memorial Nursing Scholarship is awarded to nursing students at Westminster College who have completed their freshman year and demonstrate financial need. In the 2009-2010 year, 12 student nurses were each awarded $3,100.
More information on the current Westminster College School of Nursing and Health Sciences is available online.
Sources of information for this biographical/historical note:
Content Description +/-
This collection consists of St. Mark's Hospital (Salt Lake City, Utah) School of Nursing student times books dating 1902-1968. The material consist of 16 volumes (books) of various sizes, recording in handwritten entries the hours of student nurses' clinical work at the hospital.
Each volume contains similar entries which include the students' names, daily markings indicating the students' daily work, as well as explanations for any absences. Some volumes are dated on their spines, covers, or both, while others have no such date indicators.
The first volume (June 1902–December 1907) includes the names of the book's authors on the cover. The first page has a list of head nurses at St. Mark's Hospital from 1894 to 1917. This is followed by the names of nurses in the graduating classes between 1896-1901: 4 names in 1896, 4 names in 1897, 3 names in 1898, 2 names in 1899, 8 names in 1900, and 7 names in 1901. The subsequent pages are devoted to the students and their hours worked. In a column on the left of each page is listed the students grouped into graduating classes. In rows across from the names are markings indicating the wards that the students worked each day. No key is listed for deciphering these symbols. In the event of an absence, a mark is made and an explanation for the leave is written either in the margin to the right, or in the dates missed. From September of 1902 on, the right margin lists the total days worked in each ward. Beginning in February 1903, a list of students designated "special nurses" is listed at the bottom of the page.
The second volume (January 1908 – January 1912) is authored by Fanny D. Lees, head nurse of the school at the time. There is a table of wages for calculating paychecks on its inside cover. The format of the content of this book is similar to the others, though excludes the list of "special nurses". There are small changes to the symbols used for some departments in this volume.
The third volume (January 1912–April 1915) is again created and maintained by Fanny D. Lees and Elizabeth Shellabarger, the head nurse following Lees. The content of this volume is similar in format to the others, but does not include the sum total hours worked in the right column. Rather than writing the symbol for department worked every day, a "ditto" mark is used after the initial indicative symbol beginning in December 1912.
The fourth volume (May 1915–March 1919) is the first to include a key to the symbols used. The symbols differ from than those used in previous volumes by using the letters "A" through "I" instead of abbreviations and listing the hospital wards. These changes make it easier to understand the other volumes' marks.
The fifth volume (March 1918-November 1919) is a different type of book and format than the earlier ones. It is a smaller, daily account, which lists the names of nursing students by their shift and ward, and hours worked.
The sixth volume (March 1919–March 1923) returns to the earlier style and format. Numbers have been assigned to each pupil and are listed next to their names along the left column. Beginning in December 1920, a note is added as to which students have received vaccinations but not specifying types of vaccinations.
The seventh volume (March 1923–April 1929) has the same format and content as the previous monthly records, although it is substantially thicker. The only difference is that students are not only listed by names, but also by their standing as either graduates or pupils.
The eighth volume (May 1929 – September 1936) and ninth volume (October 1936–December 1941) contain similar format and style as the previous volumes. The inside cover of the later volume lists statistics covering bed capacity, average number of patients accommodated and treated daily, and number of students employed by the Red Cross. There is a gap in entries in the ninth volume for the four-month period November 1939-February 1940. However, entries for this period are included in the following tenth volume which overlaps in dates.
The tenth volume (September 1939–April 1943) is different in size and shape from most volumes but is similar to the fifth volume in dimensions. The inside cover includes another key to symbols used within the books and demonstrate the changes in the wards of the hospital. Also, there is a school term schedule (1939-1943), listing beginning dates, the number of days in each term, and when students from the University of Utah would be transferring to the hospital in 1942. Listed on the first page is school tuition of $130.50. At the top of each page the total time absent by students and time missed due to illness is noted.
The eleventh volume (January 1942–April 1943) has the same format as earlier volumes but entries are semi-monthly. Every other page is a half page in width on which is recorded the two week totals rather than the previous monthly totals. Otherwise, the volume is the same in content.
The twelfth volume (May 1943–July 1946) is another volume with semi-monthly entries, although thicker than the previous volumes. It also records students receiving room and board from the school. The volume's last pages list students and their employment dates at the hospital. Included in this volume is a letter written by Superintendent O.V. Wardrop outlining new salary policies as recommended by the War Manpower Commission, as well as a list of students and their new salaries. It should be noted that on August 1944, the first names of male students begin to appear in the records, although none graduated from the nursing program.
The thirteenth volume (May 1943–February 1948) is similar in dimensions to the fifth and tenth volumes. The inside cover contains a key for the codes used within the book. The December 1943 entry also includes the entry dates for some students.
The fourteenth volume (August 1946 – February 1948) is different in appearance, although the content and layout is identical. The salaries listed in October 1946 show that men were paid significantly more than women at the hospital. The last pages contain a list of those who were sick with pay during the span of this volume. Also included are two notes. One details the salary schedule and personnel policies of graduating nurses. The other is a memo from Superintendent O.V. Wardrop to the head nurse concerning the school's sick leave policy.
The fifteenth volume (March 1948-December 1950, September 1951-September 1965) is a smaller, horizontal book. It contains no code for the three symbols used in lieu of the older system in earlier volumes. Marginal notes indicate which students received diplomas through December 1948. During this period there are also notes that some students have left for Warm Springs, Montana in affiliation with a psychiatric program. In 1949, gaps began appearing in records leaving entire months with little more than the names of students enrolled, with an occasional checkmark on some days. Anachronistically, there are notes from a meeting held in January 1958 for the Nursing Education Activities, describing in keywords meeting highlights. At the end of 1949, record keeping resumes gradually as more complete listings are added, continuing through December 1950. The records then became an annual entry from 1951-1965, recording the days worked by students in each class beginning with the Class of 1954 and annually entered each year in the month of September. Of interest during this period is the September 1952 entry, listing Nancy Bankhead, the first African-American student to graduate from the nursing program, as well as the September 1960 entry, listing the student "Ross Church, (Mr.)", the first male student to graduate from the nursing program.
The sixteenth volume (September 1964-June 1968) provides the same monthly layout and construction as previous records. There is no conclusive entry at the end of this volume but 1968 was the year the program was in transition from the St. Mark's Hospital program to a joint St. Mark's-Westminster College baccalaureate program.
Overlapping dates of entries in the collection: The 5th volume (March 1918-November 1919), 10th volume (September 1939-April 1943), and 13th volume (May 1943-February 1948), each with smaller dimensions than other volumes in the collection, may be a set of secondary record-keeping books as the dates of entries in each of these 3 volumes entirely overlap with the preceeding and succeeding volumes. They have however been placed within the collection in chronological order with the other larger volumes.
Collection Use +/-
Restrictions on Access:
Open to public research.
Access is restricted to volumes 8-16 (in Boxes 2-4) for 75 years after creation in accordance with the provisions of the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) except to subjects of the record and to parties without written permission or other authorization outlined in FERPA (34 CFR § 99.31).
Twenty-four hours advance notice is encouraged.
Restrictions on Use:
It is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain any necessary copyright clearances.
Permission to publish material must be obtained from the director of the Giovale Library.
St. Mark's Hospital School of Nursing nursing students time books, 1902-1968, ACC-061, Giovale Library Archives, Westminster College, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Administrative Information +/-
Volumes are arranged chronologically.
Processed March 2006 by Andrew Waterhouse.
St. Mark's Hospital (Salt Lake City, Utah). School of Nursing
Collection materials are in English.
1.2 linear feet (16 volumes)
Language of the Finding Aid:
Author of the Finding Aid:
Finding aid written March 2006 by Andrew Waterhouse; revised and expanded November 2014 by Sarah Shaw.
EAD Creation Date:
2014 November 25 by Sarah Shaw
Describing Archives : A Content Standard (DACS)
Related collections and photographs in Giovale Library Archives:
St. Mark's Hospital (Salt Lake City, Utah). School of Nursing--Archives
Nursing--Study and teaching--History--Sources
Form or Genre Terms:
Salt Lake City (Utah)--History--Sources