{"responseHeader":{"status":0,"QTime":8,"params":{"q":"{!q.op=AND}id:\"1094178\"","hl":"true","hl.simple.post":"","hl.fragsize":"5000","fq":"!embargo_tdt:[NOW TO *]","hl.fl":"ocr_t","hl.method":"unified","wt":"json","hl.simple.pre":""}},"response":{"numFound":1,"start":0,"docs":[{"type_t":"Text; Image","ark_t":"ark:/87278/s6m64tff","thumb_s":"/28/b6/28b65e30a67dfcbb8b5f3be5b42b000d4a0b3f05.jpg","oldid_t":"wc-ir 183","setname_s":"wc_ir","subject_t":"Montessori; adaptations; small group lessons; environment; accommodations; MEd","restricted_i":0,"metadata_cataloger_t":"Claire Prasad","format_t":"application/pdf","creator_t":"Rebeca Castillo","date_t":"2016-04","modified_tdt":"2016-08-12T00:00:00Z","publisher_t":"Westminster College","description_t":"The purpose of this study was to find whether students with special needs could work independently with math if the materials were adapted and if they were provided small group lessons. I learned that there are many factors that contribute to the success of students with special needs. One of these factors was that there are many things that can help the student with special needs work independently. Through the process of observation I recognized that the most relevant factors were: 1) the student has to be ready to learn, 2) they have to understand what they are being taught, and 3) the materials that are used have to be at their level. One of the concepts that I learned working in a Montessori classroom is that if the environment is organized to meet the student's needs, the student will learn. I also learned that students with special needs have the desire to learn alongside their peers. Additionally, it is important to know what resources are available and that teachers use them to support their efforts.","language_t":"eng","rights_management_t":"Digital copyright 2016, Westminster College. All rights Reserved.","file_s":"/29/25/29259cef42d13a82213663c2ce45860496eedbd0.pdf","title_t":"Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math","id":1094178,"created_tdt":"2016-08-12T00:00:00Z","parent_i":0,"_version_":1642982415646326784,"ocr_t":"Running Head: Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 1 Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math By Rebeca Castillo A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Masters of Education Westminster College Salt Lake City, UT April 2016Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 2 Abstract The purpose of this study was to find whether students with special needs could work independently with math if the materials were adapted and if they were provided small group lessons. I learned that there are many factors that contribute to the success of students with special needs. One of these factors was that there are many things that can help the student with special needs work independently. Through the process of observation I recognized that the most relevant factors were: 1) the student has to be ready to learn, 2) they have to understand what they are being taught, and 3) the materials that are used have to be at their level. One of the concepts that I learned working in a Montessori classroom is that if the environment is organized to meet the student's needs, the student will learn. I also learned that students with special needs have the desire to learn alongside their peers. Additionally, it is important to know what resources are available and that teachers use them to support their efforts. Keywords: Montessori, adaptations, small group lessons, environment, accommodationsAdaptations for Success with Montessori Math 3 Table of Contents Chapter1: Introduction........................................................................................................ 5 Statement of Topic.......................................................................................................... 6 Research Questions and Framework............................................................................... 7 Statement of Researcher ................................................................................................. 8 Significance and Limitations ........................................................................................ 10 Chapter 2: Literature Review............................................................................................ 11 Introduction................................................................................................................... 11 Montessori and Cosmic Education ............................................................................... 12 Accommodations .......................................................................................................... 13 The student's ability to focus during lessons and stay on task. ................................ 14 Purpose and implementation of IEP goals................................................................ 15 Math Instruction for Students with Special Needs ....................................................... 16 The benefits/purposes of small group/individual lessons. ........................................ 17 Adapting Math Materials for Students with Special Needs.......................................... 18 Conceptual Framework................................................................................................. 19 Apply Constructivism to students' ability to work independently with math materials after their math lessons. ............................................................................................ 20 Vygotsky and constructivism.................................................................................... 20 Summary....................................................................................................................... 22 Chapter 3: Methods........................................................................................................... 23 Approach and Rationale................................................................................................ 23 Setting and Participants................................................................................................. 24 Data Gathering Methods and Rationale........................................................................ 26 Data Analysis ................................................................................................................ 28 Validity and Trustworthiness........................................................................................ 28 Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Finding.............................................................................. 30 Introduction................................................................................................................... 30 Factors That Contribute to Effective Small Group Lessons ......................................... 30 The effect of small group lessons. ............................................................................ 31 Making the lessons effective..................................................................................... 32 Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 4 How to Effectively Teach a Lesson to a Student with Special Needs .......................... 33 Adaptations to Math Materials...................................................................................... 35 Accommodating the environment to help students work independently...................... 36 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 37 Chapter 5: Action Plan...................................................................................................... 38 Introduction................................................................................................................... 38 Summary of Findings.................................................................................................... 39 Lessons Learned............................................................................................................ 40 Recommendations for Teachers.................................................................................... 41 Recommendations for Administration.......................................................................... 41 Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 42 References........................................................................................................................ 43 Appendices....................................................................................................................... 46 Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 5 Chapter1: Introduction As a former special education participant in my elementary through high school years and as a newly appointed Special Educator, I found myself inherently motivated to research and use fitting teaching methods to help students with special needs. It was important for me to understand how I could best help students reach their goals and understand the concepts that were being taught in class. I considered what factors would help the students in my class; especially those with special needs develop self-confidence in the way they do their work and the awareness that they were able to work independently. I projected to meet the needs of the students by focusing on small group instruction and adapting their math material. The use of small groups for instructional purposes was widely practiced in a variety of contexts, ranging from conventional educational institutions to the armed forces and training within business and industry. For certain objectives, small-group methods are the techniques of choice. In other instances, they're valuable options that provide an educational system with needed flexibility. When used properly, the methods are invaluable for increasing student motivation through greater involvement and participation. Teachers are often directed to modify their teaching to accommodate students with special needs. In these cases, it is important to remember that all students will get something out of the class, but not necessarily the same things, and not necessarily what you aimed to teach them. For example, the special needs students may begin to get a grasp of math concepts while the typical students may be able to perform basic computations. Adapting materials for mixed ability classes can take different forms. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 6 Looking back at the first year of teaching Montessori Education, I was amazed at how the method worked with young students. The students would sometimes ask for help with their math work. It was difficult at first for me because I was new to Montessori and I would find myself solving the problem in my head first. It helped me, but I am not sure that it helped them. The materials for math are visual and can make the concept of math easier to comprehend. There are several steps to some of the math materials and if one of those steps is missed, the entire equation may be difficult to solve and can be confusing to the student. Another issue that students had, especially students with special needs, was the ability to manipulate the materials due to size of the material. As a teacher, I asked myself these questions: 1) What do I understand about Montessori and the inclusive classroom? 2) What is my level of understanding of my duties as a Special Educator? 3) What are some of the basic skills that need to be in place for the student to be successful? (Abu-Hamour & Muhaidat, 2013). These questions were important because they enabled me to help my students. Statement of Topic Montessori (1996) noticed that the process of learning came from the student's ability to create his/her learning environment, and not from what was being taught by the teacher. Based on this statement I asked myself, what is my responsibility as a teacher in a Montessori classroom to help students with special needs create his/her learning environment? Students with Special Needs have this capacity to distinguish what motivates them to learn (Schmidt & Schmidt, 2009). I had to be able to tap into that ability to recognize how best to assist the students with the math concepts and materials. As I worked with Lower Elementary students (6-9 years of age) in setting reasonable IEP Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 7 (Individualized Educational Plan) goals, I kept in mind to create an environment where the student would recognize the best methods that could help him/her work independently. I aimed to develop an atmosphere where the students learned and helped one another with their work, giving the students a chance to successfully work independently. Research Questions and Framework As I strived toward helping students with special needs work independently, I implemented a qualitative study with an action research methodological framework. Through the course of my research I wanted to answer the following questions: 1. How does the process of using adapted math materials and working in small group lessons affect the ability for students with special needs to work independently? 2. What factors contribute to effective small group lessons for students with special needs? By using a qualitative action research methodological framework, I was able to contribute a narrative that helped me, and hopefully other Montessori teachers, see the importance of observing students while they work independently. I was as objective and practical as possible while using the Constructivist Theory in my research. Some of the Social Theorists that influenced my theoretical framework are Piaget and Vygotsky. For this reason I was drawn to Montessori education and theory and what it offers to the teaching profession, because Montessori's groundwork is based on the idea that process is more important than product (Rathunde, 2014). As I conducted my research within the Constructivist framework, the aim was to find the process that is most effective when planning lessons and how materials can be Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 8 adapted for the students with special needs. With this in mind, I explored the students' interest to ensure the approach was focused on what the students wanted to learn and how they learned it. My research project was specific to what I can do for students with special needs and what I can do to help them work independently. Data collection was for the purpose of finding effective ways to adapt teaching materials and to effectively implement small group lessons. Statement of Researcher I started my education career after completing undergraduate work in Psychology. I felt that I had substantial experience in teaching but when I moved to a Montessori school I realized that I lacked experience on how to make accommodations for an academically diverse classroom such as I then had. As a Special Educator, I found that it is essential to acquire knowledge and skills to better serve the student with special needs. I especially needed to devote attention to scope and sequence of curriculum, pacing and the different ways students absorb knowledge (McKenzie & Zascavage, 2012). To appropriately support the theme of my research project, I had to first consider the needs of the students. I also analyzed the level of understanding and how they perceived the math lesson and the didactic materials. It was important for me to find when the students needed help and when they were capable of working independently with the materials. I observed what was occurring during the lesson so I could identify the problem that the students encountered when working independently. As a graduate student at Westminster College, in the School of Education, I found myself grounded in the theoretical framework of Critical Humanistic Education and Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 9 Constructivist theory. The Critical Humanistic education (also called person-centered education) is an approach to education where the affective and cultural concerns of learners and the socio-political realities of schooling in favor of a \"back to basics\" are integrated (Bell & Schniedewind, 1987), and the Constructivist theory is a learning theory found in psychology which explains how people might acquire knowledge and learn. It therefore has direct application on the teachers' ability to modify, adjust, and revise to fit the students' learning ability (Willis, 2009). I found through my Montessori training that students will learn best if the environment is shaped by how the students learn, and not by what is required (Montessori, 1996). It is important for students to feel that they can do their work independently, and as the students with special needs finds how they can work with the materials and do their work independently they will find that joy in knowing that they not only can do the work but they can understand the work that they do. It is important to provide every student in the class, especially students with special needs, the opportunity to achieve the ability to work independently, and to feel that they can understand the lesson and the math concepts that are taught in class. I strongly agree with the philosophy of Maria Montessori (1996) that children can create their own learning environment and that I am that guide to help them when they need help. Math is naturally challenging. To help students with special needs understand the concept, the teacher needs to adapt the material to help them work confidently with the material on their own. I worked with my students to find out how they learned so that I could effectively give them the tools they needed to work independently with little or no help from a teacher or a peer. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 10 Significance and Limitations My project was significant because I was building on the teaching and philosophy of Montessori, who determined that it was more effective if the student is taught according to the student's needs (Montessori, 1996). By applying this theory, I confirmed that students with special needs can be more successful at working independently. First, I made the materials and the lessons work for the student instead of making the student work for the lesson or the material. Montessori education is effective because it is so adaptable to how the student learns. I just had to find how to give the student the opportunity to discover what drove them to want to work independently. As I applied Montessori methods with my students, I also looked for ways to incorporate the student's skills, abilities, and interest into math lessons to make math a little more inviting. Some of the limitations of this study included specific context and participant size. The study took place in a lower elementary Montessori classroom with 23 students. My study was focused on three students with special needs in the classroom; each student had a different special need. This made the study specific to these students and the lessons and material adaptations had to be different for each student, making it difficult to apply in any other environment. Ultimately, this study was for the purpose of helping the students with special needs in my class understand math concepts in the way it is presented, so that they had the ability to work independently. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 11 Chapter 2: Literature Review Introduction Maria Montessori realized that all children can learn if they are motivated. She especially found this to be true about students with special needs (McKenzie & Zascavage, 2012). Montessori education is based on the whole child. This means that the way the student learns has to do with how they understand the world around them. Montessori showed that if you give students the opportunity, they will be able to work independently with minimal prompts or motivators (Montessori, 1996). While this standard is still the motivating factor with Montessori education, some students with special needs find it difficult to work with some of the materials. It is also challenging for some of the students to understand how to use the materials. The student may encounter different issues while using the materials. Some of these issues include the lack of motor skills (the student's ability to manipulate the materials), the process of how to work with the materials and staying focused/attentive during a lesson. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze research findings and to document the benefits or effects of small group lessons and adapted materials on students with special needs to help them work independently. It discusses sources that relate to Montessori's view on what effective education (Cosmic Education) is and how it applies to effective small group lessons and adapted materials. There is also a discussion on the purpose and implementation of Individualized Education Plan (IEP) and math instruction for students with special needs. The conceptual framework of Constructivism is used to show how small group lessons and adapted materials can help students with special needs succeed at working independently. This literature review concludes with a vision of how Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 12 small group lessons and adapted math materials will impact special needs students' ability to work independently. Montessori and Cosmic Education Maria Montessori originally leaned towards the medical profession because she felt that education was not for her. She later took an interest in teaching and realized that all children are able to learn if they are motivated. She especially found this to be true about students with special needs (McKenzie & Zascavage, 2012). Montessori started her career in education by teaching students with special needs (McKenzie & Zascavage, 2012), children others thought were unteachable. She had a thought-provoking view pertaining to effective education. She called this Cosmic Education. The crux of this new concept is that everything around us has to do with what and how we learn (Duff & Duff, 2002). This is a practical philosophy that enables students with special needs to become confident because it uses the concept of self-reliance and a desire to learn. Teachers/special-educators can find this concept very effective when implementing small group lesson and adapting materials to teach special needs students. Montessori education is based on the whole child. It takes into consideration the way the student learns and how they understand the world around them. Montessori showed that if you give students the opportunity, they will be able to work independently with minimal prompts or motivators (Montessori, 1996). While this model is still the motivating factor with Montessori education, some students with special needs find it difficult to work with some of the instructional materials due to compromised motor skills. It is also challenging for some students to understand group instructions on how to Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 13 use the didactic kits, organize the supplies to accomplish the work and focus during a lesson (Ramachandran, 2007). Accommodations This study focused on accommodations related to math instruction. Making accommodations is only the starting point at helping students gain independence in doing their work. Accommodations are made in the classroom for different reasons. One reason is to make materials more accessible to students with special needs (Kargin, Guldenoglu, & Sahini, 2010). For instance, students with special needs sometimes find it difficult to manipulate learning tools such as bead bars used as an aid in math computations. The limited motor skills make it difficult for the student to complete his/her work independently. Accommodations are also aimed to help students progress academically to stay on track to meet IEP goals. There are different ways to adjust the classroom to accommodate the student with special needs. Some of these accommodations include: 1) making changes to the physical environment; 2) sitting students in strategic locations in the classroom; 3) adjusting the student's work space; 4) controlling the temperature in the classroom; and, 5) adapting the curriculum (Kargin et al., 2010). Teachers need to recognize that the accommodations for students with specials needs can be simple (Kunc, 1884) and that these accommodations will help the student have a better chance to succeed in meeting goals and reaching independence (Hausstatter & Connolley, 2012). Accommodations during a lesson are sometimes difficult to make but are necessary if the student is to accomplish the established goals. The Montessori model is based on the idea that children see things differently than adults (Montessori, 1996). If Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 14 this idea is taken into consideration when planning accommodations for students with special needs, it may be easier to know where the accommodations are needed and how the student will perceive the concept being taught during a lesson. Students should be assessed early in the school year to determine what accommodations are needed. One way of doing assessments is to give an introductory lesson to gain an understanding of what the student knows about the math concepts. Having lessons as an initial form of assessment will also give the student accountability for doing work independently (Russell, & Bray, 2013). Other types of assessment that can help track progress are keeping records of how the students stay on task, how distracted they become by other peers or if he/she becomes frustrated with the work either because it is too difficult or too simple. The student's ability to focus during lessons and stay on task. Making simple accommodations can help students focus and stay on task. One reason that students with special needs have difficulty focusing is that there are too many distractors around them. If there is too much going on it can also affect the way they do their work. Kunc (1984) found that teachers need to observe and recognize what is happening during a lesson, to find what simple accommodations can be made to the lesson, and help them stay on task. The teacher and special educator must work together to help the students with specials needs shape the environment so it can work for them (Montessori, 1996). The teaching team (teacher and special educator) must also find the best way to fashion the environment for the student (Duff & Duff, 2002). Montessori (1996) found that the environment has an important part in the students' ability to stay focused and on task with their work and during a lesson. McKenzie and Zascavage (2012) found that along with a prepared environment, what can Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 15 help a student stay focused is to have developmentally appropriate materials and methods of giving a lesson. Helping students to stay focused and on task is important in the process of finding that peace in working with a material without having the frustration of not understanding (Ramachandran, 2007). Purpose and implementation of IEP goals. The IEP is a framework of the student's desired progress during the school year in order to successfully complete the academic requirements (Melago, 2014). It provides teachers and parents an awareness of where a student's strengths and weaknesses are and where help is needed to prescribe, supplement or remediate instruction (Weaver, 2005). By keeping track of the student's milestones towards the established goals, the lead teacher and/or special educator will know where accommodations need to be made to lessons and materials. One important aspect of the IEP is to remember to keep the student in mind when making the transition from the lesson to working with the materials (Williams-Diehm, & Lynch, 2007). The IEP can give ideas to teachers on how and when accommodations are need to help the students with special needs succeed in the various curriculum areas such as math (Melago, 2014). As the objectives of the IEP are met, teachers and special educators will come together with the parents and in some cases the student, to discuss the progress of the student in meeting the IEP goals. At this time, teachers and parents can identify what areas need additional work to meet the goals and what has been completed successfully (Weaver, 2005). The IEP is not a Montessori concept. Consequently, blending the IEP objectives with the manner in which the lessons are imparted to students with special needs requires additional skills on the part of the educator. In order for students to achieve the IEP Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 16 goals, they need to understand the concepts given during the lesson and it is the teacher's/special-educator's task to dovetail the IEP requirements with the needed accommodations. On the other hand, the IEP concept usually discourages giving individual lessons and changing the way materials are introduced (McKenzie & Zascavage, 2012). The accommodations must fit both the Montessori Method and standards of special education. Math Instruction for Students with Special Needs The Montessori lesson is built on the core concepts of the subjects being taught (Rathunda, 2014). The purpose of the lesson is to introduce the materials to the students and then let them explore and work independently. The lessons are organized around using the student's senses (Schmidt & Schmidt, 2009), are visual, hands on and are meant to be short and to the point. Although this is an effective method, some students have difficulty focusing during a lesson. The lesson is presented by the teacher by bringing out the material and calling on students to be part of the lesson (Montessori, 1996). The classroom is inclusive and students' needs vary within the same group due to contrasting learning capabilities. It is challenging to plan a lesson content and presentation because of the classroom composition; some students are typical learners while others have special needs. One thing to consider when planning a math lesson is where the majority of the teacher's time will be devoted. Will it be in planning or implementing the materials with the students (Kunc, 1984)? When giving the lesson it is important that students grasp the material content and that students work independently when the presentation part of the lesson is over. It is Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 17 important for the teacher to identify the basic skills of students with special needs and prompt them to actively participate in the lesson (Abu-Hamour & Muhaidat, 2013). It is critical that students with special needs are not excluded from the group lesson experience. It is central to the students' progress that those with special needs feel confident with the lesson's content. This can be done by approaching the lesson in a practical manner using the materials to help students understand the concept being taught (Ramachandran, 2007). When presenting a lesson to students with special needs the teacher needs to keep the concept simple and direct. Every student has the right to feel accomplished, no matter how great or small the accomplishment (Russell, & Bray, 2013). In the Montessori Method, lessons are presented by grade level for most math concepts. This is why special needs students are sometimes placed with students at a different grade level for math concepts (Ramachandran, 2007). Students with special needs are better served when assigned to small groups (3 to 4 students per group) or taught in an individual setting to help them grasp the concept and material presented in the lesson (Abu-Hamour & Muhaidat, 2013). Having a conceptual understanding of the material and its purpose can help the student progress more quickly and develop a desire for learning (Rathunda, 2014). The benefits/purposes of small group/individual lessons. It is sometimes difficult to engage students with special needs because the group size is too large (Russell, & Bray, 2013). However, there is no set formula to find the best size for group lessons. The size varies depending on the needs of the student and the math concept being taught. In order for students to understand how to use the material, they need to be able to participate during the group lesson. Sometimes adaptations need to be made to the lesson. Some of the adaptations that can be made during a lesson for Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 18 students with special needs include: 1) making changes to where in the classroom the math lessons are given; and, 2) where the students sit during lessons (Kargin, et al., 2010). The small group lesson can help the student better focus but sometimes it may be necessary to work with the student with special needs on a one-on-one basis. This one-on-one work with the student can take place directly after the initial small group lesson. This time with the student should be quick and an overview of what happened during the group lesson. This can help the teacher identify whether the student understood the concept of the math lesson and how the material is to be used to do their work (Rathunda, 2014). This individual time can also help the teacher assess if the student has any difficulties with the materials. Providing the student with the skill of going from the lesson to working independently must be done in a manner that does not detract from the group experience. The group experience is important for the student to progress with their peers, but it is also important for the student to understand the concept and how to use the material (Duff & Duff, 2002). To gain conceptual knowledge the teacher would have to know what concepts the student already knows. Arranging sequentially the materials the student already knows and use will help the student construct their learning (Fyfe, DeCaro, & Rittle-Johnson, 2014). Adapting Math Materials for Students with Special Needs A modification to the materials used by students is one way teachers can adapt their instruction to meet the needs of their special needs students (Book Preview, 1998). The materials are meant to help students to work independently; however, adaptations vary from student to student. In order to know what adaptations need to be made to the Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 19 math materials, Schmidt and Schmidt (2009) found that a teacher would have to understand and help in the natural growth and learning of a child-the teacher would also follow the Montessori education philosophy of following the unique learning needs of the student. Learning the unique way that each student with special needs learns will help teachers learn what adaptations would need to be made to help students to work independently. Learning for students with special needs is difficult and the students' needs should be taken into consideration when planning. At the same time, planning must take into consideration the limitations of the student. In spite of this, teachers must also remember not to limit the student's ability because of their disability (Kunc, 1984). It is also important, when making adaptations to the materials, to take into account how long it will take the student to complete the work. Also, to consider whether the student can do the work at the same level as other students in their group. These adaptions could be as simple as the amount of problems the student can do, or the amount of steps it takes to complete the problem. Ultimately, the goal is to find the benefits of making the adaptions to the materials. Conceptual Framework The research that I compiled leans toward the Constructivist paradigm. I was as objective and practical as possible while using the Constructivist paradigm for my research. As an educator, I needed to find what benefits all students in my class. One important assumption attached to the constructivist theory is that as a teacher modifies, adjusts, and revises instructional materials he must bear in mind that what is taught in the classroom is situational to the students' learning ability (Willis, 2009). It was important Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 20 for me to find articles, books, and information that were close to what I wanted to accomplish as I executed my research. Although I was able to find articles and books that supported my conceptual framework, I was not able to find how and what ways were most beneficial to implementing my project. The Constructivist theory closely supports the Montessori Method. This could go back to the student can learn if they are motivated (McKenzie & Zascavage, 2012). Applying the Constructivist theory to my research helped support the focus of my research topic which was finding ways to adapt math materials and how can small group/individual math lessons help students work independently. Apply Constructivism to students' ability to work independently with math materials after their math lessons. To apply Constructivism I had to make changes/adaptions that were simple or applied more drastic methods by using different materials. Other options included creating one that was more effective in helping the student work with little or no help from the teacher or peers (Kargin, et al., 2010). The constructivist theory is based on the teacher's ability to understand the dynamic nature of knowledge and how to apply it to the learning of the student's abilities (Jaleel & Verghis, 2015). By making adaptations and finding the best way the student learns, helped me to have a better idea of what or how a student wants to learn (Ramachandran, 2007). One way to apply the constructivist theory was to know which theorist worked with the concept of Constructivism. One of these theorists is Lev Semenovich Vygotsky. Vygotsky and constructivism. Vygotsky started out his educational career as a psychologist. He later instructed at a college and taught educational/learning theory which is part of constructivism. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 21 Vygotsky's philosophy, that an emphasis should be placed on teaching students the idea of process rather than on product (Rathunde, 2014), can help educators find what will work for the student instead of making the student work for the material. He realized that students have a choice in shaping the model that will best help them to succeed in what they learn (Daniels, 2014). If students have the opportunity to choose how lessons are presented and how materials are adapted, it may help them to be more successful at working independently. The students who aspire at working effectively will also be willing to work with materials that are adapted (McKenzie & Zascavage, 2012). The student with special needs will benefit in feeling that they are part of the class and not just in the class. Vygotsky also saw the benefits of student choice, intrinsic goals, active learning and self-directed concentration when applied in a supportive environment (Vygotsky, 1978). Also emphasizing the visual qualities of the man-made and natural environment can affect the student's ability to focus and remain on task (Rathunde, 2014). A student with special needs benefits from the support of administrators, teachers, special educators, and parents/guardians (Das, Kuyini, & Desai, 2013). Supporting the student with special needs is beneficial in getting the student to be an active participant in their lessons and working independently. Supporting the student gives them the opportunity to choose to be successful in participating in their small group lessons and working confidently and independently with their adapted math materials. Montessori and Constructivism work together in how the student with special needs can have success with learning. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 22 Summary Students with special needs have a natural desire to learn. They grasp knowledge in a different way than the typical learning student and they need accommodations to be successful. The student's ability to move from a teaching lesson to work independently is central in the student adeptness to succeed in their education. The Montessori Method provides a unique way to afford the student the experience of being an active part in their education, no matter his/her limitations.Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 23 Chapter 3: Methods The purpose of my action research project was to find out whether small group lessons and making adaptations to math materials helped students with special needs to work independently. In this chapter, I discuss the approach and purpose for my study design, and the setting and participants. I provide my data gathering methods and provide the procedures of my data analysis. I conclude this chapter with an explanation of the validity and trustworthiness, and a discussion of ethical considerations that occurred during my study. Approach and Rationale Action research is an attractive option for teacher researchers, school administrative staff, and other stakeholders in the teaching and learning environment to consider (Mills, 2014). Specifically, action research in education can be defined as the process of studying a school situation to understand and improve the quality of the educative process (Hine, 2013). With action research, there is a qualitative aspect, which is to ask questions (Rossman & Rallis, 2012) to reveal a target audience's range of behavior and the perceptions that drives it with reference to specific topics or issues. As I initiated my study, I based my action research project around finding whether students with special needs were able to take what they learn during small group lessons. Also, whether adapted materials helped the students gain the ability to work independently. The rationale for choosing action research process was because I, like Mills (2014), believe that the main goal of action research within education is to determine ways to enhance the lives of children (Mills, 2014). At the same time, action research had the potential to enhance my own experience while working within the educational Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 24 systems. At the beginning of my research project, I collected data that was detailed and gave a visual on what was happening with some of my students with special needs. I looked closely at how my research questions applied to the unique dynamics of my inclusive classroom. As I proceeded with my study, I anticipated that my research question would evolve due to the way that the Montessori philosophy works, which meant that I had to follow the student and watch closely what motivated the student to learn (Montessori, 1996). The focus of my research study was on three of my students with special needs. I used a case study approach to find: 1. How the process of using adapted materials and working in small group lessons affected the ability for students with special needs to work independently? 2. What factors contributed to effective small group lessons for students with special needs? Setting and Participants The setting where my project took place was in a private Montessori School where I teach Lower Elementary (1st through 3rd grade). The school is located in an urban area. The population in the area is predominately in the moderate to high income bracket. The school population is at 200 students, with about 95% Caucasian, and 5% between Latino and African American. As an inclusive school, the ratio of students with special needs is about 45% throughout the school. In my classroom of 23 students 5% are students with special needs. During the course of my study, all 23 students participated in small group math instruction; however, my case study consisted of three students with special needs. These Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 25 students were selected based on their level of comprehension and dexterity with the math concepts and materials. Two out of the three students in my case study have Down syndrome, and the third student has apraxia. All three students are at different levels in regards to competency and intellectual capacity. Below is a table with student information to show age, disability, grade level and math comprehension level. Although I taught other students in the small group lessons setting, only the three students worked with the adapted materials. This allowed me to have a better idea of how the students can work independently. Student Information for Case Study Table1 Name Age Disability Grade Level Math comprehension Level Notes Student A 9 Down Syndrome 3rd year student Strong 2nd year math comprehension Anna had a strong understanding of addition and subtraction. She had difficult with manipulating some of the math materials due to size of the material. Student B 10 Down Syndrome 2nd year student Below average 1st year math comprehension Sean was able to add one digit numbers with help. He was not able to work independently. He mainly had trouble with comprehension. Sean needed prompts from a teacher to get started on his work. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 26 Name Age Disability Grade Level Math comprehension Level Notes Student C 8 Apraxia 1st year student Below average 1st year math comprehension Billie was able to build four digit numbers with the golden beads. He had difficulty with reading out the numbers once he had built them. Billie was still at the counting level. He was able to use the 100's board to count to 20 without any mistakes. He could work independently, but needed help to count beyond 20. Data Gathering Methods and Rationale As I launched my research project to find out if small group lessons with adapted materials would help students with special needs to work independently, I used a triangulation of source data to conduct my case studies (Mills, 2014). Having multiple methods of data gathering helped me to ensure that I was getting viable data about my students. The data gathering methods that I chose also revealed the three students' ability to work independently with little or no help from a teacher or peer. Through the data gathering process, I learned what the students were capable of instead of focusing on what they could not do. The first method of data collecting was observation. Observation helped me to be an active participant, and allowed me to pull myself away from what was happening in Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 27 class. It also gave me the ability to monitor whether my students with special needs were able to go from the math lesson, to working with the adapted materials independently (Mills, 2014). As I conducted my observations, I closely looked at time samples that helped me to see how long the students were able to work independently without asking for help. I also observed whether the students were able to work with the material with little or no difficulty. I also used audio and visual recording during my lesson presentations. That helped me evaluate my own presentation and their reactions to the concepts that were presented as well as how they responded to the adapted materials. Being able to go back and watch/listen to the recordings also helped me to find whether the students were actively participating during the small math group lessons. This method showed what was actually going on during the lesson and helped me find more effective ways to present the concept and come up with ideas to adapt the materials students used for their work. It also helped identify where the material adaptions were needed. The third method of data gathering was a log of the time students interacted with adapted materials versus standard materials. This helped in determining if the adapted materials allowed the students to remain engaged in the activity longer. Along with the time logs, I used a reflective journal to help me to gather my observations and analyze what I was seeing the participants do with their materials and reflect on what I was feeling during the process of making the adaptations of the math materials. I also interviewed my teaching team to obtain their viewpoint. This allowed capturing other factors that I was not able to obtain by interviewing my participants. The Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 28 interviews showed what effect the adapted materials were having on the participants' ability to understand the concept and work independently with the materials. Data Analysis During the data gathering process of my research project I used the process of contrast-comparison method, as I wrote down my hunches and analytic ideas, for the purpose of shaping and refining my data to provide insight and analysis (Rossman & Rallis, 2012). Through this process, I also organized my data to properly analyze the level of comprehension of the three participants of my study. By getting familiar with the data assisted me in identifying what needed to be observed and the methods that were most effective in helping participants on their way to working independently. As I gathered and organized my data, the themes and categories began to emerge. Coding my data helped me in this process as I began to put the themes and categories into writing. Through synthesizing my data and pinpointing the problems that my participants were having with both the concept and material surrounding math in a Montessori classroom, I was able to devise their journey to working independently. Validity and Trustworthiness I was able to ensure the validity of my research project through the use of triangulation. This is a method of validating the information through the use of a variety of samples as well as methods to collect data on the same topic. As I gathered detailed data I needed to find how I could fit other ideas and context in to how I presented lessons and adapted materials for my student with special needs (Mills, 2014). I also consulted critical friends to discuss methods and ideas that could be effective in teaching lessons and adapting materials for my study participants. My Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 29 critical friends were full of knowledgeable information, both in Montessori and Special Education. The first critical friend has a Master's in Special Education and has over 10 years of experience. She also has a Montessori Credential, and is the Special Education Coordinator of the school. The second is the Head of School, who has a Master's in Education and she has 15 years of experience in Montessori Education. Relying on their knowledge helped and gave me support in how to gather data. I also used prolonged engagement, also known as \"being there\". I \"was there\" for my participants to spend substantial time with them to ensure that I had more than a snapshot of their progress (Rossman & Rallis, 2012). Taking the time to \"be there\" for my participants also gave me the ability to collect the data that was useful and thoughtful to their ability. Ethical Considerations As I conducted my action research project, I considered what information I would share about my study's participants. It was important to conduct my study with respect for the participants. It was important to treat the participants with respect through the time that I was working with them. Showing respect for my participants helped them to trust me and enabled them to be more willing to fully participate in the study. I also protected the participant's identity by using pseudonyms in writing my thesis. If I need to share my data for any reason I will make sure that names are changed or blacked out. The data was kept in a safe place accessible only by me in a locked cabinet and in my personal computer with a password that only I know. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 30 Chapter 4: Data Analysis and Finding Introduction The aim of my action research was to find how the process of using adapted math materials and working in small group lessons affect the ability for students with special needs to work independently, and to find the factors that contribute to effective small group lessons for students with special needs. Following the suggestions made by McKenzie and Zascavage (2012) I found that it is important for the student to be motivated if they are going to have the ability and desire to learn. Observing this motivation occur in my participants helped me to see what would work best in their journey in working independently. In this chapter, I will discuss factors that contribute to effective small group lessons, the effect of the small group lessons, and making the lesson effective for students with special needs. I will also be discussing the adaptions made to show how the students worked. I will discuss the accommodations that I had to make to the environment to help the student to work independently. I will also discuss the effect my research project had on me as a first time special educator and Montessori teacher. Factors That Contribute to Effective Small Group Lessons After reflecting on what was observed, some of the changes that were made to help the lesson be effective for the participants were to have no more than four to five students in the group. It was also effective to work with the students after the lesson for review and to have them do some of the work with the teacher giving the lesson. Doing the work directly after the lesson also gave the students the motivation to do their work independently (reflective journal, Nov. 2015). Their ability to work independently Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 31 improved to 7-10 minutes, if they left the lesson to do their work. They needed less teacher prompts to go back to their work. I wanted to find the most effective way to help the lessons go as smooth as possible and for the participants to feel that they understood the content of the lesson. Something that I learned was that students with special needs were more likely to work independently, if they participated during the lesson. What I also found with small group lessons is that the participants were more likely to participate when the groups were smaller. In addition, when we worked one-on-one they were able to understand what needed to be done with the work. Kuyini and Desai (2013) suggested that if teachers had a positive attitude and gain knowledge and skills needed to have a productive experience in the classroom, lessons would be more effective. I applied these suggestions and noticed that if I maintained a positive attitude about my role as a teacher in an inclusive classroom, small group lessons were more effective. The effect of small group lessons. Although most of the lesson accommodations were made for Students B and C, I also had to reflect on the accommodations that could help Student A. The first thing was to place her in the right spot during small group instruction for her to be attentive during the lesson. I observed that her ability to focus during the lesson was greatly impacted depending on who sat next to her during the lesson. What I observed with Student A was that she was able to stay focused during a lesson if she sat where the teacher giving the lesson had eye contact with her (personal observation, Jan. 2016). She was also more likely to participate if prompted by a peer rather than a teacher. It was important to build her ability to participate without the teacher prompts, but still have help if she needed it. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 32 Students B and C began to get small group lessons to help them better understand the content of the lesson. To have that one- on- one practice helped them gain the confidence and ability to do it on their own. In giving these follow up lessons to help the participants understand their work, I bore in mind the ideas of Duff and Duff (2002) which suggest that the environment has an effect on the how a student will learn. As I began to apply the small group lessons, I video recorded some of the lessons to help me see how they were responding to the lessons. My first video recording took place on November 11, 2015 and with this initial recording I was able to see how the students were participating during the lesson. Some of the observations that I made were that the participants were easily distracted when there were many peers in the group. They were also having trouble with staying focused if students that were not in the lesson were making noise or speaking loudly. As a teaching team we decided that lessons should be smaller for it to be effective for all students. Another observation made was that math lessons in general were time consuming and needed to be adapted more than other lessons that students had during the week. Making the lessons effective. I applied a more productive attitude toward making the lesson a productive experience for the student and created an environment of positive interactions (Abu-Hamour & Muhaidat, 2013). This made it easier to make the adjustments needed to have an effective lesson experience. Some of the positive attitudes that I applied were to give the students the chance to participate and be part of the lesson. Some the ways that I did this was to ask clear and short questions, I would ask them to show me how to work the material, and giving the chance to be ready for what came next. I began to apply what I Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 33 was learning into what I needed to teach. This helped create a positive environment where the students could have an effective lesson that would help them to succeed in working independently. The teacher giving the lesson would work with the student until they could do the work with ease. As the lesson was taught it was important to observe what was happening during the lesson to identify how to help the student work independently (interview with lead, Mar., 2016). As we started teaching lessons based on the Montessori (1996) concept that if the student is provided with the opportunity to succeed without using prompts and motivators, they would have the desire to succeed. As a teaching team we wanted to limit student confusion during a lesson and confusion on how to use a material. This was achieved by making the adaptations first and then working with the students during a lesson making sure that the students had the opportunity to participate and work with a teacher and then go on their own. How to Effectively Teach a Lesson to a Student with Special Needs The area where I needed more information was on how to make the lesson effective for the students with special needs. I had a discussion with the Special Education Coordinator for ideas on how to limit distractions for the students during a lesson (personal conversation, Feb. 2016). Some of the suggestion that she made were to have objects that the students could hold or put on their lap. Having the students hold something kept them from moving. She said for some reason it keeps the student grounded and focused. She also suggested keeping my phrasing clear and short, and to make accommodations for each lesson as they were given. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 34 When presenting the lessons, we allowed the students to have objects with them. Some of the objects that we used were: heated rice bags used for massage, a heating pad for them to sit on, or a stress ball. The students were told that they could only have the object if it did not become a distraction for them. The objects began to be implemented as part of the lessons. The rice bag seemed to be the most effective; this could have been a result of the weight of the bag. The heating pad would help sometimes, but it was more of a distraction and the ball was also mostly a distraction for the students during a lesson (personal observation, Feb. 2016). To ensure communication was adequate, we used clear and short phrasing and made sure that questions were asked in a clear and direct manner. This helped the students grasp the content of the lesson which in turn helped them to be more willing to participate during the lesson (interview with lead teacher, Mar, 2016). Kunc (1984) suggested that accommodations could be simple and I found this suggestion to be very effective. The more simple the accommodation, adaptation, and adjustments, the more likely the student was to be successful. Helping Students with Special Needs Work Independently The Montessori Method (1996) says that the whole child must be taught. As I began my research project I followed that principle and I had to find what it was going to be like for me to teach the whole child and still keep in mind the needs of each participant. I started by observing the participants to find where the strengths and weakness were in each participant. I observed the participants to see what they were doing with their work and how many times they had to be redirected to finish their work. I wanted to know if the materials were the distraction that kept the students from being Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 35 able to work independently (reflective journal, Nov., 2015). I found that with two of my participants it was the concept that was the most difficult. The adaptations were simple in some cases (personal observation, Oct., 2015), such as changing out some of the material or how the material was used. I wanted to make sure the adaptations that I was making for my participants were going to give them choice, value, creativity, understanding of the concepts, and still stay true to their personalities and the way they learn (Montessori, 1996). Adaptations to Math Materials Student A was having difficulty handling the bead bars because they were not only too small but fused together. The beads were adapted by making them larger bead bars. Before making this adaptation, someone would have to show the student where one bead ended and the next one began (see comparison of bead sizes in Appendix A). With this adaptation, she was able to stay on task and work more independently. Observing Student A work with the adapted beads proved that the adaptation afforded the student with the accessibility and functionality she needed to work independently. Gradually, she became more independent when working with math and she showed more enthusiasm in doing her math work. Student A also was able to stay focused on her work for a longer period of time (time sample from week 7). Student B had the capability of working with addition materials but the concept of adding four digit numbers was difficult for him. To help the student visualize the concept of adding four digit numbers the sand paper numbers were adapted by adding small round felt pads onto them (see Appendix B for example of sand paper number with adaptation). The purpose for adding the small round felt pads was help the student to count out the Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 36 answer without using his fingers, this form of math is called touch point math. Before making this adaptation, Student B could not stay focused and would frequently turn in math work late. Student B began to enjoy working with math, and was most successful with adding numbers that equaled less than ten (student work sample, weeks 7-10). Student C had difficulty with addition because he could not understand the correlation between naming and the value of numbers. He started by working with the hundreds board. The number tiles for the hundreds board were broken down into small sections. I observed that he was able to put the tiles in order up to the number twenty with few mistakes. In observing him work with materials that deal with value, I found that he had difficulty with the concept of number value (personal observation, Oct., 2015). To help the student grasp the relationship between number and value, the spindle box (see appendix C for spindle box sample) was used. The student was shown what the value of each number was by putting the number of objects the digits represented inside the spindle box. Gradually, the student understood how the numbers and values were related. Accommodating the environment to help students work independently One of the things that I learned from my readings was that accommodations can make the environment workable for the students with special needs. Kargin et al. (2010) suggested that changing the environment could help in the productivity of students with special needs. In order for me to find what stimulated my participants, I had to adjust the environment. I reflected on what I could do to change in the environment to guide the students to work more independently. What I observed was that sometimes it was difficult for the students to work with so much going on around them. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 37 As I applied some of the accommodations suggested by Kargin et al. (2010), I began to make changes to the environment by having specific places in the classroom for the students to work, adjusting how and where the students did their work. Applying these accommodations to the classroom limited the distractions that students faced. One of the distractions was noise levels. What I noticed was that the students were drawn to the noise. They wanted to know what was going on. One of the students found it difficult to stay focused if she was working on the floor due to not being able to sit up straight on the floor (personal observation, Nov. 2015). The solutions that we (lead teacher, assistant and I) came up with was first to provide headphones for blocking out the noise. We found that this help the students to stay more focused on their work, kept them from wondering around the room (personal observation, Jan. 2016). For Student A who had trouble staying focused on the floor, we had her work at a table or used a floor table. Providing her with the ability to sit up straight helped her to stay focused and help her to finish her work more quickly (personal observation, Dec. 2015). Conclusion As a Montessori teacher and a constructivist I wanted to make sure that I was modifying, adjusting, and revising both the lessons and the materials according to the students learning abilities (Wills, 2009). It is important to understand what the student is able to grasp about the concept and for he/she to obtain the ability to work with the materials to have success. I have the responsibility as a special educator to: find the best ways students with special needs can complete their work in the classroom, help all the students in the classroom to succeed at their level, and adjust my expectations to what I know the student is capable of learning.Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 38 I have learned that the student with special needs has the desire to learn alongside their peers and that they want to learn and do their best work. It is the freedom to allow the student to be creative that gives them the desire to learn and motivates them to do thing on their own. Chapter 5: Action Plan Introduction I began this journey with the purpose of helping my students with special needs stay focused on their math work and enabling them to work independently. As I worked with each participant, I recognized that learning is individual and I had to adapt my teaching style/approach to match the students' needs. As a teacher and special educator, I realized that I had to know the needs and personalities of my participants in order to help them to work independently. Students with special needs have a strong desire to learn and to succeed. There were many trials and errors throughout the process. As a first time special educator, I learned many things about myself and my participants. They each had their own way of learning and I had to accept that they were different and unique. To really understand what they needed I had to work closely with my teaching team to help the participants get to where they are today. The most important thing I wanted to accomplish through my action research project was to give my participants opportunities to become independent learners and workers, also to show that students with special needs have the ability to be contributing members of the community (Abu-Hamour & Muhaidat, 2013). Having the ability to work independently is not just important for my participants in the here and now, but for Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 39 their future. It is an important life skill that all people need in order to function in society. Following is a discussion on how I will apply my findings to properly teach future students, select recommendations for the teaching community, what I want administration to know about my findings and how we should apply it throughout the school and community. I also would like to share what I learned through the action research process. Summary of Findings Through the process of observing not only my participants but also myself, I found my participants to be unique and recognized that learning is individual. I also learned that an inclusive classroom is not about having students with different learning abilities in the same environment but being able to teach the students according to their ability and not by a given expectation. As the necessary adaptations were made, I learned that if the environment is prepared for learning, then the student will be more willing to learn and perform. The primary questions that steered my research were: 1. How does the process of using adapted math materials and working in small group lessons affect the ability for students with special needs to work independently? 2. What factors contribute to effective small group lessons for students with special needs? I learned that adaptations need to be simple in most cases, such as changing out some of the material or how the material was used. Reflecting on what I observed during small group lessons, I concluded that the changes that helped make the lesson effective for the participants were to have no more than four to five students in the group. In addition, Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 40 when we worked one-on-one they were able to understand what needed to be done with the work and they completed the assignment independently. Throughout my study I observed that the participating students were able to work independently, stay focused on their work for longer periods of time and were also more willing to act on the acquired knowledge after a lesson if the materials were adapted and lessons were imparted in small groups. The students showed increased confidence at completing their work when they used adapted materials. Lessons Learned This research helped me realized that in order to be more effective at teaching students with special needs I must keep my teaching style/methods simple and keep trying new things until something works. In addition, I must be confident, prepared and patient, because working with children is challenging especially those with special needs. I will continue working with the one student that will remain in my class next year. I will also be sharing information with the Upper Elementary Teachers for the two students that are moving out of my class. I will continue small group lessons with the students. This approach proved to be helpful at enabling students to gain confidence to go from the lesson to working on their own. It also helped me to know whether they understood the concept of the lesson. I will also implement the adaptations with the mainstream students in the classroom as they would benefit from the adaptations that were made. I would like to work with them to check their own answers, not that it is necessarily important to have the correct answer but for the experience to reflect on what Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 41 they have done. Through this process they would develop the ability to recognize the process to get the correct answer. Recommendations for Teachers To create a teachable environment for students with special needs, educators need to make adaptations, especially those teaching in an inclusive environment. In an inclusive classroom it is more challenging to create a learning environment but it is rewarding to see every child succeed when learning at their own pace. Montessori (1996) said that the whole child must be taught. In order for the special needs student to succeed in the classroom they need an environment in which they can learn. It is also important to present the students with materials that will allow them to succeed according to their ability. Adaptations help the students to improve in aptitude and in focus and it provides them with the ability to work independently and provides them the confidence to enjoy their learning environment. It is important to have a support team and someone with experience to help you with finding what will work best for your students with special needs. Use the resources that you have, to help you get the perspective the students will not be able to give. Recommendations for Administration The administrator's role is to ensure that the teaching community is strong and collaborative. Consequently, administrators need to support teachers continuously as they create a learning environment fitting to the students in the classroom. Although the methods I used are not popular in either Montessori or inclusive environments, it is important that each child is taught according to their ability; this means that sometimes you need to give individual/small group lessons. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 42 Conclusion It is rewarding to see every child succeed when learning at their own pace. In order for the special needs student to succeed in the classroom educators must create an environment in which they can learn. It is also crucial to provide the students with materials that will allow them to succeed according to their aptitude. Adaptations help students improve proficiency and focus. It affords them with the ability to work independently and it provides them with confidence to enjoy their learning environment. It is important to have a support team and resource specialists to help educators find what works best for students with special needs. Implementing adaptations is not always successful at first try, but the teacher must keep trying to find the right method that works best for the student. The key point I detected through my action research project was that learning is individual. Students need an environment that works for them in order to be successful at working independently. If the environment is not equipped for the students it is more likely to create behavioral issues and other problems because the student does not know what to do or how to do it. It is important to know the students and understand what their capabilities are and how to work with their limitations and strengths. Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 43 References Abu-Hamour, B., & Muhaidat, M. (2013). Special education teacher's attitudes towards inclusion of students with autism in Jordan. Journal of the International Association of Special Education, 14(1), 34-40. Bell, L., & Schniedewind, N. (1987). Reflective minds/intentional hearts: Joining humanistic education and critical theory for liberating education. The Journal of Education, 196(2), 55-77. Book Preview: ERIC/OSEP mini-library on adaption instruction materials. (1998). Teaching Exceptional Children, 30(6), 72. 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S., & Schmidt, D., (2009). Understanding Montessori: A guide for parents. Printed in the United States of America: Random House, Inc. Williams-Diehm, K. L., & Lynch, P. S. (2007). Student knowledge and perceptions of individual transition planning and its process. Journal for Vocational Special Needs Education, 29(3), 13-21. Willis, J. (2009). Constructivist instructional design (C-ID): Foundations, models, and examples. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 46 Appendices Appendix A (Comparison of bead Bars)Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 47 Appendix B (Sandpaper Numbers with felt pads)Adaptations for Success with Montessori Math 48 Appendix C (Spindle box)"}]},"highlighting":{"1094178":{"ocr_t":[]}}}